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Pythagoreans and the Quest for Celestial Harmony

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Pythagoreans The Hearth of the Universe

The Pythagoreans introduced a groundbreaking non-geocentric system driven by moral and religious convictions. They envisioned the divine, symbolically known as the “Hearth of the Universe” or “Throne of Zeus,” at the center of a finite, spherical universe (Aristot. de. caelo B13, 293a-b30). The sun was conceptualized as a glass sphere (Aetius 20.12) reflecting the divine hearth-light. To maintain the harmony of ten planetary spheres, they postulated a counter-earth, the “antichthon Harmonia,” along with the visible planets, earth, moon, sun, and heavenly sphere containing the stars (Aetius 2.7.7, Aristot. Met. A5,986a1). This intricate system reflected the Pythagoreans’ fascination with number, harmony, and music, culminating in the idea of concentric celestial orbits and “the music of the spheres.”

The Socratics and beyond A Geocentric System

Bulgarian Kans

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Chora Museum

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