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Roots of Pharmacy

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Recording Centuries of Medical Wisdom

In the times of Roman imperial power and culture, scholars started documenting all the medical knowledge gathered through years of study and conquest. The renowned book “De Materia Medica” by military doctor Dioscorides, outlining over six hundred remedies from plants, animals, and minerals, laid the foundation for pharmacology. Dioscorides also wrote about poisons and their antidotes. A bit earlier, physician Cornelius Celsus compiled an extensive encyclopedia of Greek and Alexandrian medicine Galen.

Shaping the Course of Pharmacy

In the second century of the Christian era, Galen (Claudius Galenus), born in Pergamum, Asia Minor, became a pivotal figure. Born on September 22, 131, he passed away in Rome in 201. This Greco-Roman doctor, pharmacist, and philosopher authored around five hundred books and treatises, emerging as the leading scientist of his time. Galen’s writings on med

Galen

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A Notable Greek Physician (130-200)

Early Life and Education

Galen, a renowned Greek physician and teacher, was born in Pergamun. His father, inspired by a dream, carefully educated him and chose the medical profession for him. Galen received education in Pergamun, Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria.

Medical Practice and Achievements

After completing his studies, Galen practiced medicine in his hometown and later became the physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius in Rome. He wrote an impressive 500 works on medical and philosophical topics, and today, 83 of these treatises are still available.

Contributions to Medicine

Galen served as a surgeon to gladiators, conducting vivisections and post mortems on animals like the Barbary ape but not on humans. He followed a mix of medical philosophies, combining the teachings of Hippocrates and Plato while also introducing his own ideas.

Systemizing Greco-Roman Medicine

Galen played a

Archaeological Discoveries in Ephesus

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Uncovering the Past

Exploring Ancient Streets and Buildings

Various parts of Ephesus have been uncovered, revealing historical streets and public structures:

City Market and Bouleuterion (Council Meeting Place)
Prytaneion (Meeting Quarters of Religious Authorities)
Roman Imperial Cult Sanctuaries
Tetragonos Agora (Trade Market)
Theatre for 24,000 Spectators
Inner-City Bath-Gymnasium Complexes

Late Antiquity Cathedral Marienkirche

The most significant building from late antiquity is the Marienkirche Roots of Pharmacy, a cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It stands on the site of the Olympieon, a temple honoring Emperor Hadrian, which was leveled around 400 A.D.

Public Library and South Gate Façade

Built around 110 A.D., the elaborate façade of the city’s public library, near the South Gate of the Agora, was constructed based on the wishes of Celsus Polemea

Basil II part 19

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15. Psellus seems to have misunderstood the chronology of Basil’s reign, for the Lord Chamberlain was deposed in 985 and died in exile soon after. Cedrenus (699, p. 443) implies that his downfall coincided...

Basil II part 18

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3. Basil the Lord Chamberlain (parakoimomenus) was the illegitimate son off Romanus I Lecapenus (9l9-944) and had been promoted to his high office by Nicephorus II Phocas, with the additional title of President of...

Basil II part 17

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When he gave rein to his horse and rode in the assault, he was erect and firm in his saddle, riding uphill and downhill alike, and when he checked his steed, reining it in,...

Basil II part 16

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34. Basil’s character was two-fold, for he readily adapted himself no less to the crises of war than to the calm of peace. Really, if the truth be told, he was more of a...

Basil II part 15

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His experience of army matters went further than that: the duties of the protostate,**20 the duties of the hemilochites, **21 the tasks proper to the rank immediately junior to them– all these were no...

Basil II part 14

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31. By humbling the pride or jealousy of his people, Basil made his own road to power an easy one. He was careful, moreover, to close the exit-doors on the monies contributed to the...

Basil II part 13

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29. On this note their conversation came to an end. Sclerus went off to the country estate which had been apportioned him, and soon afterwards he died. We will leave him and return to...

Bosphorus Tours

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Basil II part 4

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Tour Packages Bulgaria

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