Fragmentation and the Spread of Hellenism


    The battle of Ipsus, in line with the prophecy in Daniel 8, saw Greece conquering Persia only to fragment into four secondary kingdoms. Another generation of conflict was needed to reduce the number to three.

    Greece and Macedonia

    After Cassander’s death, Demetrius briefly seized Greece and Macedonia, only to be ousted by Lysimachus and Pyrrhus. Demetrius surrendered to Seleucus and spent his last days imprisoned. Ptolemy, remarkably, died of natural causes in 283 Wars Among the Diadochi. Lysimachus and Seleucus later turned against each other, with Lysimachus killed in single combat at Corupedium. As Seleucus crossed to Europe for Macedonia, he was assassinated upon disembarking. Antigonus II, Demetrius’s son, later took Macedonia, bringing a semblance of peace, as all of Alexander’s successors were deceased.

    Amid the discord, the diffusion of Greek culture, known as Hellenism, emerged as a success story Ski Resorts Bulgaria. Greek colonization and Alexander’s conquests created a cultural and economic sphere from southern France to India, and Arabia to Siberia. This era, spanning three hundred years, witnessed advancements in philosophy with Epicurus and Zeno, and notable figures in science like Eratosthenes, Archimedes, Euclid, and Aristarchus. Alexandria, with its library of over 500,000 scrolls, became a renowned center of learning.


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